emphasize individual judgmentat least among the cultivatedand despise uniformity. The purpose of the politics is to guide public development in a positive direction by identifying common objectives and ways of achieving them. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. Another way to put this would be to say that there is a strong utopian strand in much twentieth-century Chinese political thought, which has both pushed toward radical solutions and led to dissatisfaction with continued dissonance or piecemeal progress. Plato and Aristotle share this skepticism of democracy. Among the most significant political texts of the entire period was the trenchant manifesto Waiting for the Dawn, completed in 1663 by Huang Zongxi. A range of thinkers came to make explicit the importance of a legitimate sphere of personal concern, and this trend was one significant source of subsequent Chinese reflection about rights. Unlike the emphasis put on punishments as one kind of standard in the Guanzi, the Analects here minimizes the importance of killing.
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Classicism, Politics, and Kinship:The Chang-Chou School of New Text Confucianism in Late Imperial China. However, peace is not merely the absence of violence; it goes much further. Taipei,Taiwan: Xuesheng Shuju, 1991. Plato attacks democracy and describes the disbursement of political freedom to the masses as an intoxication of wine, claiming that a democratic city gets drunk on too much unmixed freedom (The Republic, 220). Confucianism and Autocracy: Professional Elites in the Founding of the Ming Dynasty. In another chapter of the text, possibly by the same author, it states, Those who shepherd the people desire them to be controllable. The nature and sources of political authority once again were topics of debate. There was enormous institutional innovation, partly because of great social changes, but the mainstream Confucian discourse continued to see institutions and standards with secondary importance, compared to the cultivation of virtuous individuals. Political thought has been an abiding concern of Chinas rich philosophical tradition for over twenty-five hundred years.
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